引用本文:郭浩,张秀喜,丁志伟,刘明月,谭小霞.家庭烹饪油烟污染物排放特征研究[J].环境监控与预警,2018,10(1):51-56
GUO Hao, ZHANG Xiu xi, DING Zhi wei, LIU Ming yue, TAN Xiao xia.Research on Emission Characteristics of Family Cooking Fume[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2018,10(1):51-56
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家庭烹饪油烟污染物排放特征研究
郭浩,张秀喜,丁志伟,刘明月,谭小霞
京科高新(北京)环境科学研究所,北京 101111
摘要:
对5种家常菜烹制过程排放油烟中固态和气态污染物的排放浓度,以及4种不同型号吸油烟机对固态污染物的净化效率进行了测试。结果表明,在烹制不同菜品时,ρ(油脂)平均为0.41~7.71 mg/m3,ρ(颗粒物)平均为2.28~13.15 mg/m3,ρ(VOCs中烃类)平均为121.97~518.32 μg/m3,ρ(醛酮类)平均为288.8~1 361.6 μg/m3,以非甲烷总烃代表的ρ(VOCs)平均为1.13~13.46 mg/m3(以碳计),以上结果的上限值均在烹制烹炒类荤菜(尖椒炒肉)时发生。从VOCs组分分布看,烃类污染物的排放以烷烃和烯烃为主,醛酮类污染物的排放以甲醛、乙醛、丙酮、丙醛、丁醛和正戊醛为主。此外,不同型号吸油烟机对各种菜品油烟中油脂的平均净化效率为63.84%~83.52%,对颗粒物的平均净化效率为61.02%~67.50%,且侧吸式吸油烟机较欧式吸油烟机净化效率高。
关键词:  家庭油烟  油脂  颗粒物  挥发性有机化合物  吸油烟机  净化效率
DOI:
分类号:X511
文献标识码:B
基金项目:北京市科技计划基金资助项目(Z161100000716006)
Research on Emission Characteristics of Family Cooking Fume
GUO Hao, ZHANG Xiuxi, DING Zhiwei, LIU Mingyue, TAN Xiaoxia
Beijing Institute of Hightech Environmental Science, Beijing,101111, China
Abstract:
The emission concentration of solid contaminant and gaseous contaminant was detected in the cooking process of five kinds of homely dish. In addition, the purification efficiency of solid contaminant was also tested towards four kinds of extractor hood. The results indicated that, with cooking different homely dishes, the average emission concentration of grease and particulate matter is 0.41~7.71 mg/m3 and 2.28~13.15 mg/m3 respectively, the average emission concentration of hydrocarbons and aldoketones is 121.97~518.32 μg/m3 and 288.8~1 361.6 μg/m3 respectively, the average emission concentration of non methane hydrocarbon representing VOCs is 1.13~13.46 mg/m3 (calculated by C). On the whole, all of the upper values occurred in cooking meat dish. From analyzing the composition of VOCs, alkane and olefin are primary contaminants in hydrocarbons category, ormaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propionaldehyde, n butanal and n valeraldehyde are primary contaminants in aldoketones category. Furthermore, the average purification efficiency of grease and particulate matter towards different extractor hood is 63.84%~83.52% and 61.02%~67.50% respectively, and the purification efficiency of side draught extractor hood is superior to european style extractor hood.
Key words:  Family cooking fume  Grease  Particulate matter  VOCs  Exhaust hood  Purification efficiency