引用本文:蒋炜玮,谢丹平,陈晓燕,杨艳艳,范芳.电子废弃物拆解园区重金属排放特征和周边土壤重金属污染来源解析及风险评价[J].环境监控与预警,2023,(1):9-15
JIANG Wei-wei,XIE Dan-ping,CHEN Xiao-yan,YANG Yan-yan,FAN Fang.Heavy Metal Emission Characteristics of Waste Gas from E waste Dismantling Region and Source Analysis and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surrounding Soil[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2023,(1):9-15
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电子废弃物拆解园区重金属排放特征和周边土壤重金属污染来源解析及风险评价
蒋炜玮,谢丹平,陈晓燕,杨艳艳,范芳
生态环境部华南环境科学研究所,广东 广州 510655
摘要:
对某典型电子废弃物拆解园区排放的废气以及周边土壤中的重金属进行监测分析。结果显示,拆解过程中排放的重金属总量由高到低依次为:锡(Sn)、铬(Cr)、镍(Ni)、铅(Pb)、铜(Cu)、锑(Sb)、锰(Mn)、砷(As)、镉(Cd)、汞(Hg);从处理工艺来看,几个主要拆解工序均有重金属排放,排放量由高到低依次为:加热烤板、火法冶炼、塑料造粒和湿法冶炼工序。园区周边土壤中的Hg、Cd、Cu、Pb平均质量分数超过珠三角土壤污染风险筛选值。相关性和主成分分析结果表明,Pb、Cu、Cd、Ni、Zn等重金属来源于电子废弃物拆解过程,包括废水排放、大气干湿沉降和固体废弃物随意堆放等途径,Cr可能主要来源于成土母质,Hg有电子废弃物之外的其他来源。土壤生态风险评价结果表明,该区域属于很强生态风险,其中Cd和Hg对生态危害的贡献率达到91.6%。土壤环境容量评价结果表明,该区域仅有As和Cr的土壤现存容量较大,Zn和Ni的土壤现存环境容量较小,已达到警戒值,其余重金属均处于超载状态。该地区土壤重金属污染状况须引起足够重视,应尽快制定管控治理措施。
关键词:  电子废弃物拆解园区  重金属  废气  土壤  源解析  风险评价
DOI:
分类号:X825
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFC1803904)
Heavy Metal Emission Characteristics of Waste Gas from E waste Dismantling Region and Source Analysis and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surrounding Soil
JIANG Wei-wei,XIE Dan-ping,CHEN Xiao-yan,YANG Yan-yan,FAN Fang
South China Institute of Environment Sciences,Ministry of Ecology and Environment,Guangzhou,Guangdong 510655,China
Abstract:
Heavy metals had been monitored and analyzed in waste gas and soil from a typical e waste dismantling region. The results showed that in the process of e waste dismantling, the total amount of heavy metals discharge ranged from high to low was Sn,Cr,Ni,Pb,Cu,Sb,Mn,As,Cd and Hg. Also, heavy metals were discharged in the main processes of e waste dismantling process, and the emissions from high to low are heated baking board process, pyrometallurgical smelting process, plastic granulation process and hydrometallurgical process. The average contents of Hg, Cd, Cu and Pb in soils of surrounding area exceeded the risk screening values of soil pollution in the Pearl River Delta, correlation analysis and principal component analysis results showed that Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn were derived from electronic waste dismantling process, including wastewater discharge, atmospheric dry and wet deposition, solid waste illegal stacking and etc. Cr can mainly came from soil parent material, Hg has sources other than e waste. The results of soil capacity evaluation showed that in this region the soil capacity of As and Cr was relatively large, while the soil capacity of Zn and Ni was relatively small, which had reached the warning value. Soil capacity of other heavy metals were overload. Heavy metal pollution of soil in this region should be paid more attention and control measures should be developed as soon as possible.
Key words:  E waste dismantling region  Heavy metal  Waste gas  Soil  Source analysis  Risk assessment