引用本文:孟晓艳,魏征,叶春霞.2013—2022年全国环境空气质量变化特征[J].环境监控与预警,2023,15(5):1-7
MENG Xiaoyan,WEI Zheng,YE Chunxia.Variation Characteristics of Ambient Air Quality in China During 2013—2022[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2023,15(5):1-7
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2013—2022年全国环境空气质量变化特征
孟晓艳1,魏征2*,叶春霞3
1. 中国环境监测总站,国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室,北京 100012;2. 山东省生态环境监测中心,山东 济南 250100;3. 山东裕龙石化产业园生态环境监控中心,山东 龙口 370681
摘要:
基于2013—2022年全国339个地级及以上城市环境空气质量监测数据,分析了10年来环境空气质量变化特征。结果表明,2013—2022年全国环境空气质量持续改善,74个重点城市ρ(PM2.5)从2013年的68μg/m3降至2022年的29μg/m3,降幅为57.4%;一次排放污染物ρ(SO2)和ρ(NO2)10年降幅分别为71.9%和27.6%,ρ(CO)自2015年以来下降42.1%;全国ρ(O3)波动变化,受高温干旱影响,2019和2022年ρ(O3)为148和145μg/m3,其他年份ρ(O3)在137~139μg/m3波动。全国74个重点城市优良天数比例从2013年的65.7%上升至2022年的83.0%,相当于10年间每个城市优良天数增加65d;重污染天数比例从2013年的7.9%下降至2022年的0.6%,重污染天数减少90%。2020—2022年,90%以上的非沙尘重污染天出现在秋冬季(11—12月和1—2月),夏秋季O3超标问题对优良天数比例影响显著,建议进一步强化重点区域污染联防联控与重点城市大气污染防治,加强多污染物协同治理,推进空气质量持续改善。
关键词:  空气质量  变化特征  首要污染物  城市  中国
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-6732.2023.05.001
分类号:X831
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2022YFC3703003)
Variation Characteristics of Ambient Air Quality in China During 2013—2022
MENG Xiaoyan1,WEI Zheng2*,YE Chunxia3
1.State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Quality Control in Environmental Monitoring, China National Environmental Monitoring Center,Beijing 100012,China;2.Shandong Provincial Eco environmental Monitoring Center,Jinan,Shandong 250100;3.Shandong Yulong Petrochemical Industrial Park Ecological Environmental Monitoring Center,Longkou,Shandong 370681, China
Abstract:
Based on the ambient air quality monitoring data from 339 cities in China during 2013 to 2022,the characteristics of the ambient air quality variations during the past 10 years were analyzed. The results showed that,national ambient air quality was significantly improved in the recent decade. PM2.5 concentration in 74 key cities across the country decreased from 68 μg/m3 in 2013 to 29 μg/m3 in 2022,with the magnitude of 57.4%. As for the primary emission pollutant,the concentration of SO2 and NO2 decreased by 71.9% and 27.6%,respectively in 10 years,and CO concentration decreased by 42.1% since 2015. O3 concentration fluctuated in these years,which was affected by high temperature and drought. Its concentration was 148 and 145 μg/m3 in 2019 and 2022 respectively,and fluctuated from 137 to 139 μg/m3 in other years. The proportion of attainment days in 74 key cities rose from 65.7% in 2013 to 83.0% in 2022. That is equivalent to an annual increase of 65 attainment days per city over 10 years. The proportion of heavily polluted days decreased from 7.9% to 0.6%, which means 90% of the heavily polluted days were reduced. During 2020—2022,more than 90% of the heavy pollution days appeared in fall and winter with no sand and dust. O3 nonattainment days in summer and fall had a significant impact on the proportion of attainment days. It is recommended to further strengthen the joint prevention and control of pollution in key regions and cities, and strengthen the synergistic management of multi pollutants,so as to promote the sustained improvement of air quality.
Key words:  Air quality  Variation characteristics  Major pollutants  Cities  China