引用本文:张琤,陈蓉,向运荣,叶锦新,潘燕华,郑丽敏,樊丽妃,黎文豪,徐丽丽,党志.基于实验模拟的广州市餐饮油烟VOCs排放特征及风险评估[J].环境监控与预警,2024,(1):31-40
ZHANG Cheng,CHEN Rong,XIANG Yunrong,YE Jinxin,PAN Yanhua,ZHENG Limin,FAN Lifei,LI Wenhao,XU Lili,DANG Zhi.Pollution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of VOCs in Catering Fume in Guangzhou[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2024,(1):31-40
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基于实验模拟的广州市餐饮油烟VOCs排放特征及风险评估
张琤1,2,陈蓉2,向运荣3*,叶锦新4,潘燕华2,郑丽敏2,樊丽妃2,黎文豪2,徐丽丽5,党志1
1.华南理工大学,环境与能源学院,广东 广州 510640;2.广东省生态环境监测中心,广东 广州 510308;3. 广东省固体废物和化学品环境中心,广东 广州 510308 ;4.广州市越秀区环境监测站,广东 广州 510250;5.广东广州市生态环境监测中心站,广东 广州 510030
摘要:
随着城市餐饮行业的快速发展,餐饮源已逐渐成为大气挥发性有机物(VOCs)的主要来源之一。为深入了解广州市餐饮油烟的排放特征,科学制定广州市餐饮源的减排对策,在实验室搭建烹饪平台模拟烹饪过程,探讨不同油温、食用油种类和菜系类型对烹饪油烟排放VOCs组分的影响,并采集广州市典型商圈川菜馆、湘菜馆、粤菜馆、越南菜馆4家餐馆排放的餐饮油烟废气,利用气相色谱质谱仪分析研究4家餐馆油烟废气VOCs组分特征。结果表明:不同食用油、不同油温和不同菜系下所产生的VOCs浓度及组分特征存在较大差异。烹饪油烟VOCs的排放质量浓度与温度呈正相关。东南亚和川菜烹饪方式产生的油烟VOCs均以羰基化合物为主,而油炸类烹饪方式(炸薯条)则以羰基化合物和烷烃类同为主导。炸薯条、东南亚菜和川菜烹饪油烟VOCs的羰基化合物中,乙醛占比突出。乙醛在猪油油烟中占比最高(60.4%),其次是花生油(53%)。对比环境空气样品,部分醛类物质(丁烯醛、甲基丙烯醛、苯甲醛、戊醛和己醛)在餐饮油烟VOCs中均有检出。结合实验模拟和外场监测结果表明,静电式的油烟净化器可以有效去除乙醛。苯系物在餐饮油烟废气中检出浓度的最小值均高于周边环境样品。4家餐馆中仅湘菜馆的油烟废气中苯的致癌风险>10-4,有显著致致癌风险。建议应依据餐饮油烟VOCs关键组分和污染类型,对餐饮行业进行规范科学的管理。
关键词:  餐饮油烟  挥发性有机物  排放特征  风险评估
DOI:DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-6732.2024.01.005
分类号:X799.3
基金项目:广州市民生科技攻关计划项目(201803030004)
Pollution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of VOCs in Catering Fume in Guangzhou
ZHANG Cheng1,2, CHEN Rong2, XIANG Yunrong3*, YE Jinxin4, PAN Yanhua2, ZHENG Limin2, FAN Lifei2, LI Wenhao2, XU Lili5, DANG Zhi1
1.School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China; 2. Guangdong Ecological Environment Monitoring Centre, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510308, China; 3. Guangdong Environmental Centre for Solid Waste and Chemicals, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510308, China; 4. Guangzhou Yuexiu District Environmental Monitoring Station, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510250, China;5. Guangdong Guangzhou Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Centre, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510030, China
Abstract:
With the rapid development of the urban catering industry, catering sources have gradually become one of the main sources of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To further understand the emission characteristics of catering fumes and scientifically develop the emission reduction countermeasures of catering sources in Guangzhou, a cooking platform was built in the laboratory to simulate the cooking process, and the effects of oil heating temperature, edible oil type and cuisine type on the VOCs composition of cooking oil fume emission were discussed. The stainless steel sampling tank or air bag was used to collect the catering fume emission from four restaurants in typical business district of Guangzhou, including Sichuan restaurant, Hunan restaurant, Guangdong restaurant and Vietnam restaurant. The composition characteristics of VOCs in catering fume emission from four restaurants were studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that there were significant differences in the concentration and composition characteristics of VOCs produced by different edible oils at different oil temperatures and in different cuisines. The emission concentration of VOCs from cooking fumes is positively correlated with temperature. The VOCs of cooking fumes produced by Southeast Asian and Sichuan cuisines are mainly carbonyl compounds, while deep fried cooking methods (fries) are dominated by carbonyl compounds and alkanes. Among the carbonyl compounds of VOCs in fries, Southeast Asian and Sichuan cooking oil fumes, acetaldehyde accounted for a prominent proportion. Acetaldehyde accounted for the highest proportion of lard fume(60.4%),followed by peanut oil(53%). Compared with ambient air samples, aldehydes (butyraldehyde, methyl acrolein, benzaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, and hexanal) were detected in catering fumes VOCs. At the same time, the experimental simulation and field monitoring results show that the electrostatic catering fume purifier could effectively remove acetaldehyde. The minimum concentration of benzene series detected in catering fume was higher than that in the surrounding environmental samples. The carcinogenic risk of benzene in the catering fume of only Hunan restaurants among 4 different cuisines is greater than 10-4, indicating a significant risk of cancer. Therefore, it is suggested that the catering industry should be standardized and scientifically managed according to the key components and pollution types of catering fumes VOCs.
Key words:  Catering fume  VOCs  Emission characteristic  Risk assessment