引用本文:张悦清, 何欣凌, 李平, 豆叶枝等.铝工业链中铝灰渣的危险废物特性与管理建议[J].环境监控与预警,2022,14(1):84-92
ZHANG Yue-qing, HE Xin-ling, LI Ping, DOU Ye-zhiet al.Hazardous Characteristics and Management Suggestion of Aluminum Dross from the Industrial Chain of Aluminum Production and Process[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2022,14(1):84-92
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铝工业链中铝灰渣的危险废物特性与管理建议
张悦清, 何欣凌, 李平, 豆叶枝等1,2
1. 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所,江苏 南京 210042;2. 广西壮族自治区固体废物和化学品环境管理中心,广西 南宁 530028
摘要:
为了明确铝灰渣的环境危害特征,于2019年4月和9月分别对广西典型铝冶炼、加工、再生企业进行了调查。利用铝灰渣与水反应的氨气释放率测定分光光度法等方法,对不同环节产生铝灰渣的浸出毒性、反应性、腐蚀性、易燃性进行评价分析。结果表明,铝灰渣浸出液中主要危害因子是氟化物,而非金属元素。氟化物质量浓度为2~1 370 mg/L,原铝冶炼环节所产生的铝灰渣质量浓度最高。铝合金加工原辅料和末端处理方式会改变氟化物浸出质量浓度。铝灰渣反应性的氨气释放率为3.3~6.0 mg/kg,释放率和环境风险属于较低水平。铝灰渣在纯水中浸出液pH值为8.65~11.98,不具备腐蚀性;在1 200 ℃条件下无法点燃,不具备易燃性。氟化物浸出和氨气释放是铝灰渣最需防范的环境危害,可作为其分类管理和无害化处置的依据。
关键词:  铝灰渣  危险废物  氟化物  浸出毒性
DOI:
分类号:X758
基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项(GYZX200204;GYZX200303)
Hazardous Characteristics and Management Suggestion of Aluminum Dross from the Industrial Chain of Aluminum Production and Process
ZHANG Yue-qing, HE Xin-ling, LI Ping, DOU Ye-zhiet al1,2
1. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210042, China;2. Guangxi Environmental Management Center for Solid Waste and Chemicals, Nanning, Guangxi 530028, China
Abstract:
To characterize the environmental hazard of aluminum dross, typical enterprises including smelting, processing and recycling in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China were investigated in Apr and Sep 2019. Methods including spectrophotometry in measuring release rate of ammonia generated from the reaction between the dross and water were used to analyze the extraction toxicity, reactivity, corrosivity and ignitability of aluminum dross. The fluoride concentration in the extract solution ranged from 2 to 1 370 mg/L, and the highest level was from the smelting. The raw materials used for alloy smelt and the processes used for aluminum recycle would change the fluoride concentration. The release rate of ammonia from the dross was 3.3~6.0 mg/kg, which was quite low and can induce little environmental risk. The pH value of water extract of the dross ranged from 8.65to 11.98, indicating no corrosivity. None of the dross samples can be ignited under 1 200 ℃, indicating no ignitability. Therefore, fluoride leakage and ammonia release were the hazards of the most concern in the storage and disposal of aluminum dross, and can be applied as a basis of its classification for management and disposal.
Key words:  Aluminum dross  Hazardous waste  Fluoride  Leaching toxicity